电喷与电子调速如何区分?

柴油发动机燃油系统通常可分为三个大类:
纯机械式燃油系统
机械式执行器,加上电子调速器
全电子式燃油系统,即电子喷油系统(俗称“电喷”)

1.机械式燃油系统

0

卡特彼勒现在已不生产机械式燃油系统的发动机,特点:
直接用手柄控制油门大小
油门大小即阀的开度或者说油道的截面积
由弹簧/飞锤机构来稳定转速
通常会有一个燃油(电磁阀)线圈(英文缩写为FS),除此之外,都是不带“电”的

2.机械式执行器配合电子调速器

01

如卡特3500系列不带B或C的产品(卡特彼勒现在已很少生产这类产品)。竞争对手产品如康明斯PT泵式、三菱、强鹿,特点:
机械式执行器,通常会看到拉杆机构
具有电子调速器,但通常不是基于微处理器的,通俗地说是不带电脑的
电子调速器不能被称为ECM
最大弱点在瞬态响应不如电子喷油系统好
俗称“电调”,好象与“电喷”一样或类似,易糊弄人
3412PEEC与这种系统类似,但高级一些。卡特从这一机型开始引入第一代ECM,油门齿条由ECM控制,并且有齿条位置反馈、空燃比控制等。

3.电子喷油系统
02

卡特柴油发动机现在几乎全部是电子喷油系统了,如卡特C系列、3500B/C系列。其他公司如MTU2000/4000系列、Volvo的D系列,特点:
具有基于微处理器的ECM或称ECU,即有“电脑”的
用电磁阀开启的时间长短来代替以前的油门控制,实际上,已经没有了传统意义上的“油门”
每一个气缸的喷油量都是单独控制的,控制精度非常高,这是前述两类燃油系统做不到的,这也是鉴别电喷系统的关键因素
卡特的电喷系统有两种形式:电子单体泵(EUI)与燃油共轨系统
虽然卡特的Data Sheet里称Governor Type为Electronic,但是要注意ECM与前述的电子调速器已经是完全不同的概念了
由于没有机械部件产生动作延迟,所以电喷发动机的稳态与瞬态反应都非常好,而且可编程(刷入不同的Flash File),以适应不同的应用的发动机(工业用、发动机用……等)
外表特点是更多的传感器,所以也有更多的提醒与保护。

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